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 ADN paléolithique

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Middle/Upper Paleolithic DNA
Countries sampled : Russia, Germany, Spain, Italy

Aurignacian Culture (47,000 to 28,000 ybp ; all ice-free Europe)
Krause et al. (2010) tested a complete mtDNA sequence from a 30,000-year-old eary modern human from the Kostenki 14 site on the Don River in southern Russia, and identified the haplogroup as U2 .

Gravettian Culture (28,000 to 22,000 ybp ; all ice-free Europe)
Caramelli et al. (2003) reported the analysis of two mtDNA samples from the Paglicci Cave (26,000 ybp) in the region of Apulia, Italy. One belonged to haplogroup N and the other to HV or R0 .

Solutrean Culture (22,000 to 17,000 ybp ; Western Europe)
Domíngue Fernández (2005 - doctoral thesis) identified one haplogroup U and one haplogroup R0 in remains from the Nerja caves (province of Málaga) in Spain, dated 20,000 to 17,000 ybp.

Magdalenian Culture (17,000 to 9,000 ybp ; Western Europe)
Bramanti et al. (2009) found two (probably related) individuals belonging to haplogroup U from the Hohle Fels cave in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Age estimated at 15,400 ybp.

Mesolithic DNA
Countries sampled : Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Sweden, Luxembourg, England, Portugal

Tardenoisian, Azilian and related cultures (11,500 to 7,500 ybp ; West & Southwest Europe)

Chandler et al. (2005) recovered 8 mtDNA sequences from several Mesolithic sites from the Sado estuary in central Portugal, and identified 4 individuals belonging haplogroup H (including one H1b and one possible H7), 2 to haplogroup U (U4 and U5b1c2) and 2 to haplogroup N (probably N1b and N5) . Their age range from 9,500 to 7,500 ybp.

Delsate et al. (2009) analysed the mtDNA of the Reuland- Loschbour man (8,000 ybp) from Luxembourg and assigned him to haplogroup U5a.
In 1996, Bryan Sykes of Oxford University first sequenced the mitochondrial DNA of the 9,000-year-old Cheddar Man from Gough's Cave in Cheddar (Somerset), England, and assigned him to haplogroup U5.

Maglemosian-Kongemose, Kunda-Narva, Neman-Zedmar and related cultures (11,500 to 5,000 ybp ; North & Northeast Europe)
Bramanti et al. (2009) tested Mesolithic remains from several locations across Europe, and found one haplogroup U5a (9,800 ybp) at the Chekalino site in the Volga-Ural region of Russia, one U5a1 (10,000 to 8,000 ybp) at the Lebyazhinka site in the Middle Volga region of Russia, one U5b2 (9,200 ybp) at the Falkensteiner Höhle cave in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, one U5a2a and one U5b2 (both 8,700 ybp) at the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, one U4 (8,850 ybp) at Bad Dürrenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, one U4 and one U5b2 (both 8350 ybp) from the Kunda Culture in Lithuania, two U5b2 (both 6450 ybp) from the Narva Culture in Lithuania, two U5b1 (6,000 to 5,000 ybp) from the Zedmar Culture in Poland and one U5a (4,250 ybp) from the Drestwo site in northeast Poland.

Pitted Ware Culture (5,200 to 4,000 ybp ; Scandinavia)
Malmström et al. (2009) tested 19 ancient mtDNA sequences from Gotland, Sweden. They identified 8 individuals belonging haplogroup U4, 6 to haplogroup U5 (including three U5a), one to haplogroup V, one to haplogroup K , one to haplogroup T . No haplogroup could be attributed for the last 2 samples based on the HVR test alone (16311C).

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